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有些論文没有一个好的conclusion导致影响了論文整体的成绩。因此,确实需要花点时间看看你文章的conclusion是否存在不足。那么怎么查看conclusion是否不足呢?检查你的conclusion是否完成了以下几点:

  1. 合成论据,而不是总结

在conclusion中简单地总结你的论...

手把手教你, Conclusion怎么写?

January 18, 2018

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关于英文写作的一些实用技巧(一)

January 5, 2018

关于英文写作的一些实用技巧

提高英文写作是一个需要花时间的过程,最可靠的办法就是实际的写和修改。同时,借鉴一些有益的经验,会有助于我们印证自己的写作体会,并注意到一些自己忽视的问题。这里总结了一些关键点,它们包括例句来自于几本不错的写作参考书(书目待补充)。

核心观念:清楚,简洁,有规矩,有条理——这是学生时期英文论文写作的关键,其他的都是次要的可选项。在初学写作的过程中,切忌朝复杂玄妙的方向努力,因为经验不足,往往会导致夹缠罗嗦,故作高深的文风。即使你中文写的很炫,也不可轻易在英文论文里玩花样,最好从平实的文风开始。“如无必要,勿增实体”是哲学上的说法,在英文写作上,如无必要,一概删去。

1, Begin sentences with active subjects and verbs

这个原则的核心是把一个句子看成一个故事,active subjects 就是故事里的人物characters,他们/它们发出的行动是主动,积极的verb。除非要用故意制造悬念的手法,这两部分要尽早展示在句子里。如果前面有从句(表示时间,原因等),要尽量简洁。

要点:有很多名词性的抽象说法,都可以转化/简化成积极的动词,“有….名词”——转化成“主语+动词”。

举例:

1. There will be an evaluation of the program by us——We will evaluate the program.
2. Determination of policy occurs at the presidential level——The president determines policy.
3. There was first a review of the evolution of the dorsal fin——First, scientists reviewed how the dorsal fin evolved.


2. Emphasize the word at the end of a sentence.

由于句号的原因,句子最后一个词会停顿,这个词最好是一个比较重要的词。如果刚好用了无关紧要的词,可以把它删掉,或者调整到句子的其他部分。

举例:

 1.Sociobiologists are making the provocative claim that our genes largely determine our social behavior (in the way we act in situations we find around us every day). 括号里的废话可以删掉。

Sociobiologists are making the provocative claim that our genes largely determine our social behavior.

2. No one can explain why that first primeval superatom exploded and thereby created the universe (in a few words). 括号里的部分并非关键,但有意义,换个位置。

No one can explain in a few words why that first primeval superatom exploded and thereby created the universe.


词类轻重的顺序一般是:介词,形容词/副词,动词,名词,抽象名词

所以:

1. The intellectual differences among races is a subject that only the most politically indifferent scientist is willing to look into.

The intellectual differences among races is a subject that only the most politically indifferent scientist is willing to explore.

        2. . . . until in God's good time, the powerful New World steps forth to liberate the old.

. . . until in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.

        在这个例子里,丘吉尔用抽象名词liberation,而不是动词liberate 来增加句子的庄严感。


3. 用于强调句子后半部分的句式,要少用。

这些句型的特点是开头加字用来强调谓语后面的部分,一般都要在后续的句子里解释为什么要强调,进而展开话题,一个就够了。除非是文学手法,这种句式在一段话里不要多次出现。

1. There is/ There are

A few grammatical patterns add weight to the end of a sentence.
There are a few grammatical patterns that add weight to the end of a sentence.

2. What—

This country needs a monetary policy that will end the violent fluctuations in money supply, unemployment, and inflation.

What this country needs is a monetary policy that will end the violent fluctuations in money supply, unemployment, and inflation.

3.It—

That domestic oil prices must eventually rise to the level set by OPEC once seemed inevitable.

It once seemed inevitable that domestic oil prices must eventually rise to the level set by OPEC.

有些表达属于毫无意义的废话,直接删除,比如:

It is interesting to note that ——可以直接说事情,体现出它的interesting,而不是强迫读者也认为它有趣。

There are those occasions when——直接说when




1-3 小结

主语谓语要清楚(早出现),句子结尾要强,开头强调要慎用。Begin sentences with subjects and verbs, letting subordinate elements branch to the right. Even a long, long sentence can be clear and powerful when the subject and verb make meaning early.



4. 关于主动语态和被动语态

A. 根据第一条原则,尽量使用主动语态,用直接的动词。被动语态给出一种貌似客观的感觉,但实际上掩盖了谁在采取行动,这是很多政治声明为了掩盖行动者,推卸责任的办法。

举例:

It was found that data concerning energy resources allocated to the states were not obtained. This action is needed so that a determination of redirection is permitted on a timely basis when
weather conditions change. A system must be established so that data on weather conditions and fuel consumption may be gathered on a regular basis.

We found that the Department of Energy did not obtain data about energy resources that Federal offices were allocating to the states. The Department needs these data so that it can determine
how to redirect these resources when conditions change. The Secretary of the Department must establish a system so that his office can gather data on weather conditions and fuel consumption on a
regular basis.


B. 一些规章制度也要求客观,在没有必要指出行动者,大家都知道是谁,或者完全无关紧要的时候,可以采取被动语态,强调受动者。

举例:

Valuable records should always be kept in a fireproof safe.


C. 学术文章也追求客观的效果,但这并不意味着要使用被动语态,如无特殊原因,尽量用主动。下面讨论这些特殊的情况。

1.主语是一大串的名词,造成头重脚轻,需要用被动语态。

举例:

Astronomers, physicists, and a host of other researchers entirely familiar with the problems raised by quasars have confirmed these observations.

These observations have been confirmed by astronomers, physicists, and a host of other researchers entirely familiar with the problems raised by quasars.

2.强调受动者/受害者的时候,用被语态突出行动造成的后果。比如,一位大作家没有受到公正的待遇,这都是别人(赶时髦的批评家)造成的。这种表达是被动的,但对于句子里的主动者(批评家)来说,是有攻击性的,有passive aggressive 的效果。看库切的句子:

Brodsky regards Hardy as a neglected major poet, “seldom taught, less read,” particularly in America, where he is cast out by fashion-minded critics into the limbo of “premodernism.”
 

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